X-ray diffraction and Rietveld Analysis

Lecturers: Johannes Birkenstock


Beginning with most fundamental concepts of scattering and diffraction phenomena the diffraction data produced from crystalline samples will be explained in detail. Modern X-ray diffraction methods will be covered as well as up-to-date Rietveld analysis of such data. Typical targets are identification of crystalline phases (crystalline solids of different compositions and structures), quantitative phase analyses, determination of crystal sizes and lattice strains from diffraction data and crystal structure analyses. Special techniques related to these analyses such as Le Bail`s method and quantification without structure models will also be covered.


The students will learn to understand the background of diffraction methods from a most fundamental level to very specific aspects. Students will be able to apply the Rietveld method to analyse X-ray diffraction data of powder samples.


written exam and written report on your own Rietveld analysis

Exam Form:



1. Rietveld`s initial papers
- Rietveld (1967), Acta Cryst. 22, 151-152
- Rietveld (1969), J. Appl. Cryst. 2, 65-71.
2. Some introductory articles to the Rietveld method
- Albinatti, Willis (1982), J. Appl. Cryst., 15, 361-374.
- Mc Cusker et al. (1999), J. Appl. Cryst., 32, 36-50.
3. Comprehensive Rietveld book
- Young (ed.) (1995), The Rietveld method, IUCr Monographs on Crystallography 5, 298 p.
- Dinnebier, Leineweber & Evans (2018), Rietveld Refinement: Practical Powder Diffraction Pattern Analysis using TOPAS, De Gruyter, 347 p.


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Teaching Aids:

Notebook-Pool, Tabellenkalkulation mit Excel