Michael Schulz Michael Schulz
Professor for Geosystem Modeling

MARUM - Center for Marine Environmental Sciences
and Faculty of Geosciences
University of Bremen
D-28334 Bremen

Fon: +49-421-218-65500
Fax: +49-421-218-65505
E-Mail: mschulz@marum.de

 

For further information on our climate-related research see:

Geosystem Modeling Group Homepage
DFG-Research Center / Excellence Cluster The Ocean in the Earth System - Research Area Ocean and Climate


Research Interests:

1. Using numerical models of varying complexity to study

- the origin of climate variations at millennial-to-interdecadal timescales,
- Neogene climate evolution,
- climate-change effects in coastal areas.

2. Software development for time-series analysis of unevenly spaced data.

back to top


Publications:

2017  2016  2015  2014  2013  2012  2011  2010  2009  2008  2007  2006  2005  2004  2003  2002  2001  2000 and before


2017

Rebotim, A., Voelker, A. H. L., Jonkers, L., Waniek, J. J., Meggers, H., Schiebel, R., Fraile, I., Schulz, M. and Kucera, M. (2017): Factors controlling the depth habitat of planktonic foraminifera in the subtropical eastern North Atlantic. Biogeosciences., 14, 827–859. Reprint

Gronholz, A., Gräwe, U., Paul, A. and Schulz, M. (2017): Investigating the effects of a summer storm on the North Sea stratification using a regional coupled ocean-atmosphere model. Ocean Dynamics, 67, 211–235. Reprint


2016

Varma, V., Prange and Schulz, M. (2016): Transient simulations of the present and the last interglacial climate using the Community Climate System Model version 3: effects of orbital acceleration. Geoscientific Model Development, 9, 3859–3873. Reprint

Kretschmer, K., Kucera, M., and Schulz, M. (2016): Modeling the distribution and seasonality of Neogloboquadrina pachyderma in the North Atlantic Ocean during Heinrich Event 1. Paleoceanography, 31, 986–1010. Reprint

Venancio, I. M., Franco, D., Belem, A. L., Mulitza, S., Siccha, M., Hu, A., Albuquerque, L. S., Schulz, M., and Kucera, M. (2016): Planktonic foraminifera shell fluxes from a weekly resolved sediment trap in the southwestern Atlantic: Evidence for synchronized reproduction. Marine Micropaleontology, 125, 25-35. Reprint

Jung, G., Prange, M., and Schulz, M. (2016): Influence of topography on tropical African vegetation coverage. Climate Dynamics, 46, 2535–2549. Reprint

Olafsdottir, K. B., Schulz, M. and Mudelsee, M. (2016): REDFIT-X: Cross-spectral analysis of unevenly spaced paleoclimate time series. Computers and Geosciences, 91, 11-18. Reprint / download programm

Rachmayani, R., Prange, M., and Schulz, M. (2016): Intra-interglacial climate variability: Model simulations of Marine Isotope Stages 1, 5, 11, 13, and 15. Climate of the Past, 12, 677–695. Reprint

Past Interglacials Working Group of PAGES (2016): Interglacials of the last 800,000 years. Reviews of Geophysics, 54, 162–219, doi:10.1002/2015RG000482. Reprint

Johnstone, H.J.H., Lee W., and Schulz, M. (2016): Effect of preservation state of planktonic foraminifera tests on the decrease in Mg/Ca due to reductive cleaning and on sample loss during cleaning. Chemical Geology, 420, 23-36. Reprint


2015

Zhang, X., Prange, M., Merkel, U. and Schulz, M. (2015): Spatial fingerprint and magnitude of changes in the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation during Marine Isotope Stage 3. Geophysical Research Letters, 42, 1903–1911. Reprint

Rachmanyani, R., Prange and Schulz, M. (2015): North African vegetation–precipitation feedback in early and mid-Holocene climate simulations with CCSM3-DGVM. Climate of the Past,11, 175–185. Reprint


2014

Schulz, M. and Paul, A., Eds. (2014): Integrated Analysis of Interglacial Climate Dynamics (INTERDYNAMIC). Springer Verlag, Heidelberg, 139 pp. Content

Jung, G., Prange, M., and Schulz, M. (2014): Uplift of Africa as a potential cause for Neogene intensification of the Benguela upwelling system. Nature Geoscience, 7, 741-747. Reprint/Suppl.

Bakker, P., Masson-Delmotte, V., Martrat, B., Charbit, S., Renssen, H., Gröger, M., Krebs-Kanzow, U., Lohmann, G., Lunt, D. J., Pfeiffer, M., Phipps, S. J., Prange, M., Ritz, S. P., Schulz, M., Stenni, B., Stone, E. J., and Varma, V. (2014): Temperature trends during the Present and Last Interglacial periods – a multi-model-data comparison. Quaternary Science Reviews, 99, 224-243. Reprint

Zhang, X., Prange, M., Merkel, U. and Schulz, M. (2014): Instability of the Atlantic overturning circulation during Marine Isotope Stage 3. Geophysical Research Letters, 41, doi:10.1002/2014GL060321. Reprint

Pol, K., Masson-Delmotte, V., Cattani, O., Debret, M., Falourd, S., Jouzel, J., Landais, A., Minster, B., Mudelsee, M., Schulz, M., Stenni, B. (2014): Climate variability features of the last interglacial in the East Antarctic EPICA Dome C ice core. Geophysical Research Letters, 41, 4004–4012, doi:10.1002/2014GL059561. Reprint

Johnstone, H.J.H., Kiefer, T., Elderfield, H. and Schulz, M. (2014): Calcite saturation, foraminiferal test mass and Mg/Ca based temperatures dissolution-corrected using XDX - a 150 ka record from the western Indian Ocean. Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems, 15, 781-797.Reprint


2013

Masson-Delmotte, V., Schulz, M., Abe-Ouchi, A., Beer, J., Ganopolski, A., Rouco, J.F.G., Jansen, E., Lambeck, K., Luterbacher, J., Naish, T., Osborn, T., Otto-Bliesner, B., Quinn, T., Ramesh, R., Rojas, M., Shao, X. and Timmermann, A. (2013): Information from Paleoclimate Archives. In: T.F. Stocker, D. Qin, G.-K. Plattner, M. Tignor, S.K. Allen, J. Boschung, A. Nauels, Y. Xia, V. Bex and P.M. Midgley (Editors), Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge and New York, pp. 383-464. Reprint

Milker, Y., Rachmayani, R., Weinkauf, M.F.G., Prange, M., Raitzsch, M., Schulz, M. and Kucera, M. (2013): Global and regional sea surface temperature trends during Marine Isotope Stage 11. Climate of the Past, 9, 2231–2252. Reprint

Chu, K., C. Winter, D. Hebbeln, and M. Schulz (2013): Improvement of morphodynamic modeling of tidal channel migration by nudging. Coastal Engineering, 77, 1-13. Reprint

Bakker, P., E. J. Stone, S. Charbit, M. Gröger, U. Krebs-Kanzow, S. P. Ritz, V. Varma, S. Khon, D. J. Lunt, U. Mikolajewicz, M. Prange, H. Renssen, B. Schneider, and M. Schulz (2013): Last interglacial temperature evolution - a model inter-comparison: Climate of the Past, 9, 605-619. Reprint


2012

Seidenglanz, A., M. Prange, V. Varma, and M. Schulz (2012): Ocean temperature response to idealized Gleissberg and de Vries solar cycles in a comprehensive climate model. Geophysical Research Letters, 39, L22602. Reprint

Varma, V., M. Prange, T. Spangehl, F. Lamy, U. Cubasch, and M. Schulz (2012): Impact of solar-induced stratospheric ozone decline on Southern Hemisphere Westerlies during the Late Maunder Minimum. Geophysical Research Letter, 39, L20704. Reprint

Huang, E., S. Mulitza, A. Paul, J. Groeneveld, S. Steinke, and M. Schulz (2012): Response of the eastern tropical Atlantic central waters to meridional overturning circulation changes during the Last Glacial Maximum and Heinrich Stadial 1. Paleoceanography, 27, PA3229. Reprint

Felis, T., U. Merkel, R. Asami, P. Deschamps, E. C. Hathorne, M. Kölling, E. Bard, G. Cabioch, N. Durand, M. Prange, M. Schulz, S. Y. Cahyarini, and M. Pfeiffer (2012): Pronounced interannual variability in tropical South Pacific temperatures during Heinrich stadial 1. Nature Communications, 3, 965. Reprint / Supplementary Material

Varma, V., M. Prange, U. Merkel, T. Kleinen, G. Lohmann, M. Pfeiffer, H. Renssen, A. Wagner, S. Wagner, and M. Schulz (2012): Holocene evolution of the Southern Hemisphere westerly winds in transient simulations with global climate models. Climate of the Past, 8, 391-402. Reprint

Zhang X., M. Prange, S. Steph, M. Butzin, U. Krebs, D. Lunt, K. H. Nisancioglu, W. Park, A. Schmittner, B. Schneider, M. Schulz (2012): Changes in equatorial Pacific thermocline depth in response to Panamanian Seaway closure: Insights from a multi-model study. Earth and Planetary Science Letters., 317-318, 76-84. Reprint


2011

Chu, K., C. Winter, D. Hebbeln, and M. Schulz (2011): Optimization Scheme for Coastal Morphodynamic Model. Journal of Coastal Research, SI64: 736-740. Reprint

Morley, A., M. Schulz, Y. Rosenthal, S. Mulitza, A. Paul, and C. Rühlemann (2011): Solar modulation of North Atlantic central Water formation at multidecadal timescales during the late Holocene. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 308, 161-171. Reprint

Johnstone, H. J. H., J. Yu, H. Elderfield, and M. Schulz (2011): Improving temperature estimates derived from Mg/Ca of planktonic foraminifera using X-ray computed tomography-based dissolution index, XDX. Paleoceanography, 26, PA1215, doi:10.1029/2009PA001902. Reprint

Varma, V., Prange, M., Lamy, F., Merkel, U., and Schulz M. (2011): Solar-forced shifts of the Southern Hemisphere Westerlies during the Holocene. Climate of the Past,7, 339-347, doi:10.5194/cp-7-339-2011. Reprint (incl. corr.)

Collins, J. A., E. Schefuß, D. Heslop, S. Mulitza, M. Prange, M. Zabel, R. Tjallingii, T. M. Dokken, E. Huang, A. Mackensen, M. Schulz, J. Tian, M. Zarriess, and G. Wefer (2011): Interhemispheric symmetry of the tropical African rainbelt over the past 23,000 years. Nature Geoscience, 4, 42-45. Reprint / Supplementary Material


2010

Lopes dos Santos, R., M. Prange, I. S. Castañeda, E. Schefuß, S. Mulitza, M. Schulz, E. M. Niedermeyer, J. S. S. Damsté, and S. Schouten (2010): Glacial-interglacial variability in Atlantic meridional overturning circulation and thermocline adjustments in the tropical North Atlantic. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 300, 407-414. Reprint

Niedermeyer, E. M., E. Schefuß, A. L. Sessions, S. Mulitza, G. Mollenhauer, M. Schulz, and G. Wefer (2010): Orbital- and millennial-scale changes in the hydrologic cycle and vegetation in the western African Sahel: Insights from individual plant wax δD and δ13C, Quaternary Science Reviews, 29, 2996-3005. Reprint

Narayan, N., A. Paul, S. Mulitza, and M. Schulz (2010): Trends in coastal upwelling intensity during the late 20th century. Ocean Science, 6, 815-823. Reprint

Langebroek, P., A. Paul, and M. Schulz (2010): Simulating the sea-level imprint on marine oxygen-isotope records during the Middle Miocene using an ice sheet-climate model. Paleoceanography, 25, PA4204. Reprint

Johnstone, H. J. H., Schulz, M., Barker, and H. Elderfield (2010): Inside story: An X-ray microtomography method for assessing dissolution in foraminifera tests. Marine Micropaleontology, 77, 58-70. Reprint

Berger, W. H., M. Schulz and G. Wefer (2010): Quaternary Oceans and Climate Change: Lessons for the Future? International Journal of Earth Sciences, 99 (Suppl. 1), S171-S189. Reprint

Holbourn, A., W. Kuhnt, M. Regenberg, M. Schulz, A. Mix and N. Andersen, N. (2010): Does Antarctic glaciation force migration of the tropical rain belt? Geology, 38, 783-786. Reprint

Bamberg, A., Y. Rosenthal, A. Paul, D. Heslop, S. Mulitza, C. Rühlemann, and M. Schulz (2010): Reduced North Atlantic Central Water formation in response to early Holocene ice sheet melting. Geophysical Research Letters, 37, L17705, doi:10.1029/2010GL043878. Reprint

Mulitza, S., D. Heslop, D. Pittauerova, H. W. Fischer, I. Meyer, J.-B. Stuut, M. Zabel, G. Mollenhauer, J. A. Collins, H. Kuhnert, and M. Schulz (2010): Increase in African dust flux at the onset of commercial agriculture in the Sahel region. Nature, 466, 226-228. Reprint / Supplementary Material

Prange, M., S. Steph, M. Schulz, and L. Keigwin (2010): Inferring moisture transport across Central America: Can modern analogs of climate variability help reconcile paleosalinity records? Quaternary Science Reviews., 29, 1317-1321. Reprint

Steph, S., R. Tiedemann, M. Prange, J. Groeneveld, M. Schulz, A. Timmermann, D. Nürnberg, C. Saukel, and G. H. Haug (2010): Early Pliocene increase in thermohaline overturning preconditioned the development of the modern equatorial Pacific cold tongue. Paleoceanography, 25, PA2202, doi:10.1029/2008PA001645. Reprint

Merkel, U., Prange, M. and Schulz, M. (2010): ENSO variability and teleconnections during glacial climates. Quaternary Science Reviews, 29, 86-100. Reprint

Timmermann, A., Menviel, L., Okumura, Y., Schilla, A., Merkel, U., Timm, O., Hu, A., Otto-Bliesner, B. and Schulz, M. (2010): Towards a quantitative understanding of millennial-scale Antarctic warming events. Quaternary Science Reviews, 29, 74-85. Reprint

Prange, M., J. Jongma, and M. Schulz (2010): Centennial-to-millennial-scale Holocene climate variability in the North Atlantic region induced by noise. In: Stochastic Physics and Climate Modelling, edited by: Palmer, T. and Williams, P., Cambridge University Press, 307-326. Reprint


2009

Niedermeyer, E. M., Prange, M., Mulitza, S., Mollenhauer, G., Schefuß, E. and Schulz, M. (2009): Extratropical forcing of Sahel aridity during Heinrich stadials. Geophysical Research Letters, 36, L20707, doi:10.1029/2009GL039687. Reprint

Langebroek, P., A. Paul, and M. Schulz (2009): Antarctic ice-sheet response to atmospheric CO2 and insolation in the Middle Miocene. Climate of the Past, 5, 633-646. Reprint

Fraile, I., Schulz, M., Mulitza, S., Merkel, U., Prange, M. and Paul, A. (2009): Modeling the seasonal distribution of planktonic foraminifera during the Last Glacial Maximum. Paleoeceanography, 24, PA2216, doi:10.1029/2008PA001686. Reprint

Fraile, I., S. Mulitza, and M. Schulz (2009): Modeling planktonic foraminiferal seasonality: Implications for sea-surface temperature reconstructions. Marine Micropaleontology, 72, 1-9. Reprint

Jones, P. D., K. R. Briffa, T. J. Osborn, J. M. Lough, T. D. v. Ommen, B. M. Vinther, J. Luterbacher, E. R. Wahl, F. W. Zwiers, M. E. Mann, G. A. Schmidt, C. M. Ammann, B. M. Buckley, K. M. Cobb, J. Esper, H. Goosse, N. Graham, E. Jansen, T. Kiefer, C. Kull, M. Küttel, E. Mosley-Thompson, J. T. Overpeck, N. Riedwyl, M. Schulz, A. W. Tudhope, R. Villalba, H. Wanner, E. Wolff, and E. Xoplaki (2009): High-resolution paleoclimatology of the last millennium: a review of current status and future prospects. The Holocene, 19, 3-49. Reprint


2008

Mulitza, S., M. Prange, J.-B. W. Stuut, M. Zabel, T. von Dobeneck, A. C. Itambi, J. Nizou, M. Schulz, and G. Wefer (2008): Sahel megadroughts triggered by glacial slowdowns of Atlantic meridional overturning. Paleoceanography, 23, PA4206, doi:10.1029/2008PA001637. Reprint

Franke, J., M. Schulz, A. Paul, and J. Adkins (2008): Assessing the Ability of the 14C Projection-Age Method to Constrain the Circulation of the Past in a 3D Ocean Model. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, 9, Q08003, doi:10.1029/2008GC001943. Reprint

Franke, J., A. Paul, and M. Schulz (2008): Modeling variations of marine reservoir ages during the last 45,000 years. Climate of the Past, 4, 125-136. Reprint / Supplementary Material / Online Reservoirage Database

Fraile, I., M. Schulz, S. Mulitza, and M. Kucera (2008): Predicting the global distribution of planktonic foraminifera using a dynamic ecosystem model. Biogeosciences, 5, 891-911. Reprint


2007

Holbourn, A., W. Kuhnt, M. Schulz, J.-A. Flores and N. Andersen (2007): Orbitally-paced climate evolution during the middle Miocene "Monterey" carbon-isotope excursion. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 261, 534-550. Reprint

Jongma, J. I., M. Prange, H. Renssen, and M. Schulz (2007): Amplification of Holocene multicentennial climate forcing by mode transitions in North Atlantic overturning circulation. Geophysical Research Letters, 34, L15706, doi:10.1029/2007GL030642. Reprint / Supplementary Material

Schulz, M., Prange, M., and A. Klocker (2007): Low-frequency oscillations of the Atlantic Ocean meridional overturning circulation in a coupled climate model. Climate of the Past, 3, 97-107. Reprint


2006

Steph, S., R. Tiedemann, M. Prange, J. Groeneveld, D. Nürnberg, L. Reuning, M. Schulz, and G. Haug (2006): Changes in Caribbean surface hydrography during the Pliocene shoaling of the Central American Seaway. Paleoceanography, 21, PA4221, doi:10.1029/2004PA001092. Reprint

Sima, A., A. Paul, M. Schulz and H. Oerlemans (2006): Modeling the oxygen-isotopic composition of the North American Ice Sheet and its effect on the isotopic composition of the ocean during the last glacial cycle. Geophysical Research Letters, 33, L15706, doi:10.1029/2006GL026923. Reprint / Supplementary Material

Zaric, S., Schulz, M. and Mulitza, S. (2006): Global prediction of planktic foraminiferal fluxes from hydrographic and productivity data. Biogeosciences, 3, 187-207. Reprint


2005

Holbourn, A., Kuhnt, W., Schulz, M. and Erlenkeuser, E. (2005): Impacts of orbital forcing and atmospheric carbon dioxide on Miocene ice-sheet expansion. Nature, 438, 483-487. Reprint / Supplementary Material

Beckmann, B., Flögel, S., Hofmann, P., Schulz, M. and Wagner, T. (2005): Orbital forcing of Cretaceous river discharge in tropical Africa and ocean response. Nature, 437, 241-244. Reprint / Supplementary Material

Klocker, A., M. Prange and M. Schulz (2005): Testing the influence of the Central American Seaway on orbitally forced northern hemisphere glaciation. Geophysical Research Letters, 32(3), L03703, 10.1029/2004GL021564. Reprint

Jiang, H., J. Eiriksson, M. Schulz, K.-L. Knudsen and M. S. Seidenkrantz (2005): Evidence for solar forcing of sea-surface temperature on the North Icelandic shelf during the late Holocene. Geology, 33, 73-76. Reprint


2004

Holbourn, A., W. Kuhnt, and M. Schulz (2004): Orbitally paced climate variability during the middle Miocene: High-resolution benthic stable isotope records from the tropical western Pacific. In Continent-ocean interactions within east Asian marginal seas, edited by Clift, P., W. Kuhnt, P. Wang and D. Hayes, pp. 321-337, American Geophysical Union, Washington DC. Reprint

Schulz, M., Paul, A. and Timmermann, A. (2004): Glacial-Interglacial Contrast in Climate Variability at Centennial-to-Millennial Timescales: Observations and Conceptual Model. Quaternary Science Reviews, 23, 2219-2230. Reprint

Prange, M. and M. Schulz (2004): A coastal upwelling-seesaw in the Atlantic Ocean as a result of the closure of the Central American Seaway. Geophysical Research Letters, 31, L17207, 10.1029/2004GL020073. Reprint / Accompanying Pages Newsletter Article

Sima, A., A. Paul and M. Schulz (2004): The Younger Dryas -- an intrinsic feature of late Pleistocene climate change at millennial timescales. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 222, 741-750. Reprint

Schulz, M. and Paul, A. (2004): Sensitivity of the ocean-atmosphere carbon cycle to ice-covered and ice-free conditions in the Nordic Seas during the Last Glacial Maximum. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 207,127-141. Reprint


2003

Sarnthein, M., van Kreveld, S., Erlenkeuser, H., Grootes, P.M., Kucera, M., Pflaumann, U. and Schulz, M. (2003): Centennial-to-millennial-scale periodicities of Holocene climate and sediment injections off the western Barents shelf, 75°N. Boreas, 32, 447-461. Reprint

Pahnke, K., R. Zahn, H. Elderfield and M. Schulz (2003): 340,000 Year centennial-scale marine record of southern hemisphere climatic oscillation. Science, 301, 948-952. Reprint / Supplementary Material

Timmermann, A., Gildor, H., Schulz, M. and Tziperman, E. (2003): Coherent resonant millennial-scale climate oscillations triggered by massive meltwater pulses. Journal of Climate, 16, 2569-2585. Reprint


2002

Schulz, M., Paul, A. and Timmermann, A. (2002): Relaxation oscillators in concert: A framework for climate change at millennial timescales during the late Pleistocene. Geophysical Research Letters, 29 (24), 10.1029/2002GL016144. Reprint

Kiefer, T., Lorenz, S., Schulz, M., Lohmann, G., Sarnthein, M. and Elderfield, H. (2002): Response of precipitation over Greenland and the adjacent ocean to North Pacific warm spells during Dansgaard-Oeschger stadials. Terra Nova, 14, 295-300. Reprint

Schulz, M. (2002): On the 1470-year pacing of Dansgaard-Oeschger warm events. Paleoceanography, 17 (3), 10.1029/2000PA000571. Reprint

Schulz, M. and Mudelsee, M. (2002): REDFIT: estimating red-noise spectra directly from unevenly spaced paleoclimatic time series. Computers and Geosciences, 28, 421-426. Reprint / download programm

Schulz, M. (2002): The tempo of climate change during Dansgaard-Oeschger interstadials and its potential to affect the manifestation of the 1470-year climate cycle. Geophysical Research Letters, 29 (1), 10.1029/2001GL013277. Reprint

Schulz, M. and Paul, A. (2002): Holocene climate variability on centennial-to-millennial time scales: 1. Climate records from the North-Atlantic realm. In: Wefer, G., Berger, W. H., Behre, K.-E. and Jansen, E. (eds.), Climate development and history of the North Atlantic Realm. Springer Verlag, Berlin, 41-54. Reprint

Paul, A. and Schulz, M. (2002): Holocene climate variability on centennial-to-millennial time scales: 2. Internal feedbacks and external forcings as possible causes. In: Wefer, G., Berger, W. H., Behre, K.-E. and Jansen, E. (eds.), Climate development and history of the North Atlantic Realm. Springer Verlag, Berlin, 55-73. Reprint

Schulz, M., Berger, W. H., Baillie, M., Luterbacher, J., Meincke, J., Negendank, J. F. W., Paul, A. and Ramseier, R. O. (2002): Tracing climate-variability: the search for climate dynamics on decadal to millennial time scales. In: Wefer, G., Berger, W. H., Behre, K.-E. and Jansen, E. (eds.), Climate development and history of the North Atlantic Realm. Springer Verlag, Berlin, 125-148. Reprint

Hinnov, L. A., Schulz, M. and Yiou, P. (2002): Interhemispheric space-time attributes of the Dansgaard-Oeschger oscillations between 100 and 0 ka. Quaternary Science Reviews, 21, 1213-1228. Reprint / Supplementary Material

Helmke, J. P., Schulz, M. and Bauch, H. A. (2002): Sediment-color record from the northeast Atlantic reveals patterns of millennial-scale climate variability during the past 500,000 years. Quaternary Research, 57, 49-57. Reprint


2001

Sarnthein, M., Stattegger, K., Dreger, D., Erlenkeuser, H., Grootes, P., Haupt, B. J., Jung, S., Kiefer, T., Kuhnt, W., Pflaumann, U., Schäfer-Neth, C., Schulz, H., Schulz, M., Seidov, D., Simstich, J., van Kreveld, S., Vogelsang, E., Völker, A. and Weinelt, M. (2001): Fundamental modes and abrupt changes in North Atlantic circulation and climate over the last 60 ky - Concepts, reconstructions and numerical modeling. In: Schäfer, P., Ritzrau, W., Schlüter, M. and Thiede, J. (eds.), The Northern North Atlantic: A changing environment. Springer Verlag, Berlin, 365-410. Reprint

Schulz, M., Seidov, D., Sarnthein, M. and Stattegger, K. (2001): Modeling ocean-atmosphere carbon budgets during the Last Glacial Maximum - Heinrich 1 Meltwater Event - Bølling transition. International Journal of Earth Sciences, 90, 412-425. Reprint


2000 and before

Lohmann, G. and Schulz, M. (2000): Reconciling Bølling warmth with peak deglacial meltwater discharge. Paleoceanography, 15, 537-540. Reprint

Hay, W. W., DeConto, R. M., Wold, C. N., Wilson, K. M., Voigt, S., Schulz, M., Rossby-Wold, A., Dullo, W.-C., Ronov, A. B., Balukhovsky, A. N. and Söding, E. (1999): Alternative global Cretaceous paleogeography. In: Barrera, E. and Johnson, C. C. (eds.), Evolution of the Cretaceous ocean-climate system, Special Paper, 332. Geological Society of America, Boulder, 1-47. Reprint

Schulz, M., Berger, W. H., Sarnthein, M. and Grootes, P. M. (1999): Amplitude variations of 1470-year climate oscillations during the last 100,000 years linked to fluctuations of continental ice mass. Geophysical Research Letters, 26, 3385-3388. Reprint

Mudelsee, M. and Schulz, M. (1997): The Mid-Pleistocene climate transition: onset of 100 ka cycle lags ice volume build-up by 280 ka. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 151, 117-123. Reprint

Schulz, M. and Stattegger, K. (1997): SPECTRUM: Spectral analysis of unevenly spaced paleoclimatic time series. Computers and Geosciences, 23, 929-945. Reprint / download program

Schulz, M. and Schäfer-Neth, C. (1997): Translating Milankovitch climate forcing into eustatic fluctuations via thermal deep water expansion: a conceptual link. Terra Nova, 9, 228-231. Reprint

Schulz, M., Wold, C. N., Ronov, A. B. and Hay, W. W. (1995): A forward and inverse transformation program for the 'Atlas of Lithological-Palaeogeographical Maps of the World'. Computers and Geosciences, 21, 907-911. Reprint / download program

Schulz, M., Mudelsee, M. and Wolf-Welling, T. C. W. (1994): Fractal analyses of Pleistocene marine oxygen isotope records. In: Kruhl, J. H. (ed.), Fractals and dynamic systems in geosciences. Springer Verlag, Berlin, 307-317. Reprint

Pollard, D. and Schulz, M. (1994): A model for the potential locations of Triassic evaporite basins driven by paleoclimatic GCM simulations. Global and Planetary Change, 9, 233-249. Reprint

back to top


Articles in press/submitted:

Erokhina, O., Rogozhina, I., Prange, M., Bakker, P., Bernales, J., Paul, A. and Schulz, M. (in press): Dependence of slope lapse rate over the Greenland ice sheet on background climate. Journal of Glaciology.


back to top


Software:


 REDFIT-X: Cross-spectral analysis directly from unevenly spaced time series

The program combines the cross-spectral analysis (as in SPECTRUM) with a Monte-Carlo approach for estimating uncertainties of spectral parameters. The program is based on the Lomb-Scargle Fourier transform for unevenly spaced data in combination with the Welch-Overlapped-Segment-Averaging procedure. REDFIT-X can perform harmonic analysis (detection of periodic signal components embedded in red noise (AR1) as well as cross-spectral analysis (cross-amplitude-, coherency- and phase-spectrum). Cross-spectral analysis does not require a common time axis of the two processed time series.

Version 1.1 (August 2016) : Binaries for Windows, Fortran 90 source code and documentation (Make sure to keep the directory structure when unzipping.)

 REDFIT: Red-noise spectra directly from unevenly spaced time series

Paleoclimatic time series are commonly unevenly spaced in time, making it difficult to obtain an accurate estimate of their typical red-noise spectrum. This Fortran 90 program overcomes this problem by fitting a first-order autoregressive (AR1) process, being characteristic for many climatic processes, directly to unevenly spaced time series. Hence, interpolation in the time domain and its inevitable bias can be avoided. The program can be used to test if peaks in the spectrum of a time series are significant against the red-noise background from an AR1 process.

Version 3.8e (November 2010) : Binaries for Win2000/XP/Win7, Fortran 90 source code and documentation (Make sure to keep the directory structure when unzipping.)

New in version 3.8: Rare crashes for time series with near-zero persistence and very high time resolution fixed.
New in version 3.7: Automatic check of input data added. If the program encounters decreasing ages it will stop. Identical age entries and the corresponding data values are automatically averaged.

A graphical user interface is now available for REDFIT. It was developed by Boris Priehs (Univ. Bremen) and uses the commercial software MATLAB (Version 7 or above) to easily control the settings of REDFIT and to visualize the results: MATLAB script files and documentation.



SPECTRUM: Spectral analysis of unevenly spaced time series

A menu-driven PC program that allows the analysis of unevenly spaced time series in the frequency domain. The program is based on the Lomb-Scargle Fourier transform for unevenly spaced data in combination with the Welch-Overlapped-Segment-Averaging procedure. SPECTRUM can perform: 1) harmonic analysis (detection of periodic signal components), 2) spectral analysis of single time series and 3) cross-spectral analysis (cross-amplitude-, coherency- and phase-spectrum). Cross-spectral analysis does not require a common time axis of the two processed time series. 4) Analytical results are supplemented by statistical parameters that allow the evaluation of the results. During the analysis a user is guided by a variety of messages. 5) Results are displayed graphically and can be saved as plain ASCII or PCX files. 6) Additional tools for visualizing time series data and sampling intervals, integrating spectra and measuring phase angles facilitate the analysis. Compared to the widely used Blackman-Tukey approach for spectral analysis of paleoclimatic data, the advantage of SPECTRUM is the avoidance of any interpolation of the time series.

Version 2.2: Binaries for DOS/Win9x/Win2000/XP        Borland Pascal source code (Make sure to keep the directory structure when unzipping.)
       Documentation as pdf
Note for Windows 7 users: Win7 does not support the full-screen mode required by SPECTRUM. A workaround is described here.



ENVELOPE: Envelope estimation from unevenly spaced time series
This program estimates temporal changes in amplitude (= signal envelope) and phase of a signal component of given period in a time series. The program can process unevenly spaced input data directly, that is, without the requirement of interpolation.

Version 5.3 (September 2004): Binaries for DOS/Win9x/NT/2000 and documentation.

New in version 5.3: Automatic check of input data added. If the program encounters decreasing ages it will stop. Identical age entries and the corresponding data values are automatically averaged.


TIMEFRQ: Time-frequency analysis of unevenly spaced time series
This program estimates temporal amplitude changes of sinusoidal signal components in a given time series over a prescribed frequency range (spectrogram). The program can process unevenly spaced input data directly, that is, without the requirement of interpolation.

Version 4.3 (July 2004): Binaries for DOS/Win9x/NT/2000 and documentation.

New in version 4.3: Automatic check of input data added. If the program encounters decreasing ages it will stop. Identical age entries and the corresponding data values are automatically averaged.


STATNARY: Mean and variance evolution of unevenly spaced time series
This program estimates the time-dependent mean and variance of a time series using a sliding rectangular window. Temporal changes in mean and variance can be used as a first-order check if a time series is weakly stationary. The estimation of time-dependent mean values is equivalent to a box-car (or running-average) low-pass filter. STATNARY can process unevenly spaced time series directly, that is, without the requirement of interpolation.

Version 1.2 (October 2004): Binaries for DOS/Win9x/NT/2000 and documentation.



PALEOMAP:

Forward and inverse transformation for the polyconical projection used in the 'Atlas of Lithological-Paleogeographical Maps of the World - Mesozoic and Cenozoic of continents and oceans' (Ronov et al., 1989).

Version 1.4:  Binaries for DOS and Turbo Pascal source code


back to top


Academic Career:

1987-1994 Studies of Marine Geology (Univ. Kiel) and Marine Geotechnics (Univ. Bangor, Wales)
1995-1998Doctoral Studies (Paleoceanographic Modeling), Univ. Kiel
1999-2001 Postdoc at Inst. for Geoscienes (Univ. Kiel), Scripps Institution of Oceanogaphy (La Jolla), and Meteorological Inst. (Univ. Hamburg)
2001-2002 Junior Lecturer at Inst. for Geosciences (Univ. Kiel)
since 2002 Professor for Geosystem Modeling (Univ. Bremen)


     Ongoing Professional Activities

     Past Professional Activities
     
  • Member of the European Marine Board (2012-2016)
     
  • Coordinating Lead Author IPCC AR5, WG-I, Chapter Information from Paleoclimate Archives (2009-2013)
     
  • Member of the National Committee for Global Change Research (2009-2013)
     
  • Member of the Scientific Steering Committee of Past Global Changes - PAGES (2008-2013)
     
  • Coordinator of DFG Priority Research Program 1266 Integrated Analysis of Interglacial Climate Dynamics (INTERDYNAMIC) (2007-2013)
     
  • Associate Editor for Paleoceanography (2005-2010)
     
  • Vice Dean and Dean (2005-2007) Faculty of Geosciences, University of Bremen (2004-2010)
     
  • Speaker Research Area Ocean and Climate at MARUM (2003-2014)
     

      back to top